This list of word combinations without the head element was created for students who are learning English and need some extra practice. The list includes some of the most often used word combinations in the English language and it is a fun way to practice your English.
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Classification of word combinations
Word combinations with main element
As for headless collocations, they do not seem to have a general structure common to all groups of this type. In other words: Word combinations without headings are structurally more diverse than word combinations with headings. Elements of unhashed word combinations can be connected by three types of relations: Interdependence, coordination and accumulation. But first, word combinations without chapters fall into two main groups: independent and dependent. Independent collocations are structures that can be identified as grammatically organized groups without additional context: short and simple, win and lose, they are married.
Dependent groups have other specific characteristics. These word combinations cannot be identified as grammatically organized groups without the complementary context serving as a background for the interpretation of the dependent word combinations as syntactically organized structures: her (career) successful, (architecture) baroque picturesque, (accept) immediately, (write her) a letter, (stay) at home all day.
The independent and dependent groups are divided into the following structures: 1) morphologically homogeneous and 2) morphologically heterogeneous. Morphologically homogeneous word combinations consist of units belonging to the same part of speech: short and simple, hot and tasty (cake). Morphologically heterogeneous word combinations are formed by elements of different word classes: Jack smiled as he watched her approach.
Independent and morphologically homogeneous word combinations are based on coordination expressed with or without a coordinating conjunction (ladies and gentlemen) (insects, birds, mammals).
Morphologically heterogeneous independent word combinations are represented by the only type, namely word combinations based on predication: she sang, the car broke down.
Morphologically homogeneous word combinations include only one type of construction, i.e. groups based on accumulation: old black (cat).
Morphologically heterogeneous dependent structures can be of two types: 1) with accusative link between components (e.g., his black (shoes)) and 2) with secondary predication (e.g., (see) he walks).
Morphologically heterogeneous dependent structures are usually represented by attribute-regressive word combinations when they are based on accumulation relations (e.g., their dear (house)). But object and adverb constructions are also possible: (talk) to me about this event, (come) here to intervene in my work.
Headless dependent word combinations based on interdependence (secondary predicate) are expressed by a complex object – (hear) the door slam – or by absolute constructions – (she left the room), her face became pale; the wind became fresh, (we went back to the hotel).
The above list of word combinations does not include all possible classes. Nevertheless, the list contains the most important execution types. Therefore, word combinations with pronouns were not distinguished, because pronouns, like numerals, have similar syntactic properties as nouns and adjectives, but are characterized by more limited combinability: the real you have touched….
Given the attempts to classify word combinations, it is impossible not to mention the structural types of components within word combinations. The elements of a word combination appear to be either structurally simple or structurally complex, which allows us to classify them further.
Complex structures can be formed in different ways, which requires special study. Simple components, on the other hand, are interpreted as separate words or groups of words that contain attributive elements or adverbs indicating degree.
Composite elements are traditionally considered to be structures based on secondary predication, for example. B. complex object (the illness made her feel hopeless). However, the members of a word combination are defined in terms of syntactic elements. It is well known that syntactic elements are characterized by certain positions that can be occupied both by a certain morphological class and by other units. In other words: Syntactic positions can be filled not only by words, but also by combinations of words of different types. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the syntactic positions that predicative units, i.e. units traditionally called subordinate clauses, may occupy.
Research shows that any syntactic element that is not a simple predicate can be expressed by some type of predicate unit. An object element may be assigned B. a predicate unit, for example: I know where they lived.
Similar phenomena may occur in other syntactic positions: Subject and Proverb -We thought they were back at the hotel a little earlier than expected, Attribute -The letter we sent, Adverb clause -When she emailed the request, she found the information on the Internet.
Classification of word combinations
|1. Adverb||2. Adjective head||3. Name head||4. Name head||5. Adjective head||6. Verbal head||7. The head of the preposition|
Examples: 1. very slow; 2. absolutely beautiful; 3. large building; 4. expect success; 5. tend to disobey; 6. make a painting; 7. at the station.
|Words without heads|
|8. Coordination at Union level||9. Asynchronous coordination||10. Primarily dependent preaching||11. Accumulation||12. Secondary dependency
Examples: 8. Black and white; 9. Men, women, children; 10. they left; 11. old shiksa (house); 12. (they watched) the sunset; 12.
As we can see, a predicate can occupy any place in the sentence. It is recognized in linguistics that predicate units can function as part of a word combination. This fact is controversial, however, because recognizing a predicate unit as a constituent of a word combination means depriving the clause of the status of an independent syntactic structure.
Sometimes word combinations are analyzed in terms of the morphological status of the combined words rather than the relationships between them. The noun + noun type is therefore the most common form of collocation in modern English. It must be divided into two subtypes, depending on the form of the first component, which may be in the common noun case or in the possessive noun case.
Another common type is adjective + noun, which is used to express all kinds of things with their properties.
The verb + noun type can correspond to two different kinds of relations between the action and the thing. In the vast majority of cases, the noun denotes the object of the action expressed by the verb, but in some collocations it denotes not the object but the measure of the action. This is evidenced by expressions such as walk a mile, sleep an hour, wait a minute, etc. Only the meaning of the verb and noun allows the listener or reader to understand the context correctly. The meaning of the verb separate z. B. the sentence wait a minute from the sentence call an hour! and shows that the relationship in these two sentences is fundamentally different.
Other types of word combinations should also be identified and analyzed. These include verb + adverb, adverb + adjective, adverb + adverb, noun + preposition + noun, adjective + preposition + noun, verb + preposition + noun, etc.
An important question arises in relation to the noun + verb pattern. Different views have been expressed in linguistic theory about this. According to one view, noun + verb collocations (sometimes called predicate collocations) exist and should be studied like all the other types of collocations we have listed above. The other viewpoint is that the noun + verb type does not exist, because the noun + verb combination is a sentence and not a word combination. Opponents of this approach find this argument unconvincing. They believe that if the noun + verb combination is understood as a sentence, which is sometimes possible, it is analyzed at another level, that of the sentence, and that what is found at the level of the sentence cannot affect the analysis at the level of the word combination. Zij beweren dat als wij bijvoorbeeld een groep nemen die op zinsniveau is geschreven, dit betekent dat elk van de componenten op elke manier volgens zijn paradigma kan worden gewijzigd, zolang dit niet wordt verhinderd door een verband met een andere component. In this case, the first component, the human, can change in number, i.e., appear in the plural, and the second component, the writing, can change in the verb categories of aspect, time, relation and mood (the change of the verb in aspect is dictated by the first component, while the change of the voice is impossible due to the meaning). Thus, the groups a man writes, a man has written, men write, men have written, a man would have written, etc., can be considered variants of the same sentence, just as man and men are forms of the same noun, and written, has written, has written, etc. are forms of the same verb. – are forms of the same verb. Proponents of this approach maintain that the word combination as such has no intonation of its own, just as the word has no intonation of its own. This is not the case with the proposal. Man’s writing is like a sentence – it’s not the same sentence that people wrote, it’s a different sentence.
The status of the noun + verb pattern as a word combination is thus confirmed.
Word combinations that consist of two components can be expanded by adding a third component, for example, and so on. For example, the word combination adjective + noun (warm day) can be extended by an adjective, resulting in the type adjective + adjective + noun (nice warm day). The latter can in turn be expanded with other add-ons. The limit of the possible extension of the word combination cannot be determined.
This source has been very much helpful in doing our research. Read more about combinations with repetition and let us know what you think.